Brain Damage

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Both traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury occur after birth. And neither is degenerative. Sometimes, the two terms are used interchangeably. There is a kind of brain damage that results from genetics or birth trauma.


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It's called congenital brain damage. It is not included, though, within the standard definition of brain damage or traumatic brain injury.

Incidence and Demographics

Some brain injuries cause focal -- or localized -- brain damage, such as the damage caused when a bullet enters the brain. In other words, the damage is confined to a small area. Closed head injuries frequently cause diffuse brain damage, which means damage to several areas of the brain. For example, both sides of the brain are damaged and the nerves are stretched throughout the brain. This is called diffuse axonal injury or DAI. The severity of brain damage can vary with the type of brain injury.

A mild brain injury may be temporary. It causes headaches , confusion, memory problems, and nausea. In a moderate brain injury, symptoms can last longer and be more pronounced. With a severe brain injury, the person may suffer life-changing and debilitating problems. He or she will have cognitive, behavioral, and physical disabilities.

Brain damage

People who are in a coma or a minimally responsive state may remain dependent on the care of others for the rest of their lives. When the brain is starved of oxygen for a prolonged period of time, brain damage may occur. Brain damage can occur as a result of a wide range of injuries, illnesses, or conditions. Because of high-risk behaviors, males between ages 15 and 24 are most vulnerable. And approximately 5. About 50, die as a result of brain injury.

What are the types of brain damage and how severe are they? All traumatic brain injuries are head injuries. But head injury is not necessarily brain injury.

Siddharthan Chandran: Can the damaged brain repair itself?

There are two types of brain injury: traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury. Both disrupt the brain's normal functioning. Both traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury occur after birth. And neither is degenerative. Sometimes, the two terms are used interchangeably. There is a kind of brain damage that results from genetics or birth trauma.

It's called congenital brain damage. It is not included, though, within the standard definition of brain damage or traumatic brain injury. Most brain injuries cause focal -- or localized -- brain damage, such as the damage caused when a bullet enters the brain. In other words, the damage is confined to a small area. Closed head injuries frequently cause diffuse brain damage, which means damage to several areas of the brain.

For example, both major speech and language areas might be involved. The severity of brain damage can vary with the type of brain injury.

Severe head injury - Complications - NHS

A mild brain injury is temporary. It causes such symptoms as headaches , confusion , memory problems, and nausea. In a moderate brain injury, symptoms can last longer and be more pronounced. In both cases, most patients make a good recovery.


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  4. With a serious brain injury, the person may suffer life-changing and debilitating problems. People who are in a coma or a minimally responsive state are examples of those who are likely to have permanent brain damage. What causes brain damage? When the brain is starved of oxygen for a prolonged period of time, brain damage may occur.

    Brain damage can occur as a result of a wide range of injuries, illnesses, or conditions. Because of high-risk behaviors, males between the ages of 15 and 24 are most vulnerable. Young children and the elderly also have a higher risk. What are the symptoms of brain damage? There are numerous symptoms of brain damage, whether traumatic or acquired. How are brain damage and brain injuries treated?

    To be sure, the injured brain does have some capacity to recover. As scientists put it, the brain is "plastic. Interventions may also work better at certain times. A series of timed medications might be used, each addressing specific biochemical processes in the wake of brain damage. If you are looking for more information on traumatic brain injury or have a specific question, our information specialists are available business weekdays, Monday through Friday, toll-free at from 9am to 5pm ET.

    Additionally, the Reeve Foundation maintains fact sheets on brain injury and aphasia with additional resources from trusted Reeve Foundation sources. Check out our repository of fact sheets on hundreds of topics ranging from state resources to secondary complications of paralysis. Grantees undertaking projects under government sponsorship are encouraged to express freely their findings and conclusions. Points of view or opinions do not, therefore, necessarily represent official Administration for Community Living policy. Reeve Foundation. How does brain injury occur?

    Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHD)

    Closed head injury Effects of a brain injury Rehabilitation Research Resources. Overview of the brain As the control center for all of the body's functions, the brain is responsible for conscious activities walking, talking and unconscious activities breathing, digestion. What is a traumatic brain injury? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 5. Closed head injury A closed head injury often occurs without leaving obvious external signs.

    Closed head injuries often result in more damage and extensive neurologic deficits, including: Partial to complete paralysis Cognitive, behavioral, and memory problems Persistent vegetative state A concussion is a type of closed head injury; while most people fully recover from a concussion, there is evidence that accumulated injury to the brain, even moderate injury, causes long-term effects. Effects of a brain injury Injured brain tissue can recover over time.

    Common behavioral problems include: Verbal and physical aggression Agitation Learning difficulties Poor self-awareness Altered sexual functioning Impulsivity Social consequences of mild, moderate, and severe TBI are numerous, including higher risk of suicide, divorce, chronic unemployment, and substance abuse. Rehabilitation Rehabilitation begins immediately after injury. Some rehab practices for TBI include: Memory books and electronic paging systems to improve particular functions and to compensate for deficits.